What A Sham

Updated 07/15/2004 10:03:25 AM -0400

The GOP controlled Senate Issues a convenient report after the CIA director resigns that blames him for Iraq Intelligence failure. No mention is made as to the Presidents deliberate misstatements (after the Director of the CIA warned him of its inaccuracy)  to the Nation and the House of Representatives during his State of the Union Address, no mention is made of the enormous pressure that was put on the CIA director to 'get on board' with the administration's propaganda campaign before the war. No mention is made as to the myriad of intelligence officials who told this administration, the press and the public that the administration was demanding, what in effect, was the falsification of intelligence reports to support our ill advised war. The GOP leadership is made up of some shameless liars. This Senate report reeks of the very corruption and politicization it purports to expose. It is selective in its criticisms and leaves the most inept President since Herbert Hoover without criticism in its 521 pages. Now to be sure the report does make some key findings that have been known to many for years. Many of the problems that are Identified in this report have been existent since the Clinton Years. However, they were never addressed under Deutch's tenure. The biggest tragedy is that it has taken an attack of this magnitude to get Washington to look into these matters with any seriousness. It is a sign as to how inverted the nations priorities are. They can ramrod bills on Free Trade, thus shipping your job overseas and Telecommunications bills that the Media titans want passed but when it comes to dealing the real issues of securing the nation, sloth and idleness engulfs the Congress. This is why another attack on this nation is a certainty. We are not prepared for another attack. With the 1500 mile Mexican border unsecured and millions of illegal immigrants (some of whom are terrorist infiltrators from the middle east)  flooding into the nation every year, we are inviting an attack in America. What is the President doing about that?






To be sure the CIA was wrong about Saddam's WMD capabilities, however the CIA never claimed that Saddam was the perennial threat that the Bush administration claimed he was. The CIA's Key National Intelligence Estimate or NIE on the matter that was such a hot topic a few months ago shows that the Bush administration clearly lied about what the CIA actually said. The basic problem here is that the Pentagon and Rumsfeld's special intelligence unit that concocts whatever 'intelligence' it wants and puts it out as fact, as long as it justifies military conquest of oil rich nations. It was BOGINT or Bogus Intelligence. Now that Tenet has resigned, the GOP is using him as the scapegoat for its own inept and ethically challenged President, who led this nation to war based, not on the CIA's lie, but his own. It reminds me of a scene from Movie Schindler's List were the Jews were in the Concentration Camp and the Camp Commander asks them all who had stolen a chicken. He gets angry when no one answers so he shoots an old man at random and kills him. The commander asks again 'who stole the chicken'. Just before the commander was about to make an example of another person, a small boy steps up and says he knows who stole it, the boy points to the man who is already dead.

This is how I view this whole affair, blame Tenet now that he has resigned.

It is almost impossible to explain or overemphasize the amount of pressure brought to bear on the Intelligence community just prior to our war to produce, create, concoct, falsify, forge or in any way produce reporting that said that Saddam had a massive stockpile of  Weapons of Mass Destruction. Weapons that no person who had inspected Iraq's facilities said that they had. There was no massive stockpile of WMD's; I knew it, the CIA, knew it, the Pentagon knew it, and the President knew it and our allies knew it. OK, Saddam may have had a couple of cans of bug-spray in his utility closet, but that was about the extent of his WMD capability. Most of these Chemical and biological substances have a very limited shelf life of just a few years. Yet there is much much more to the story that a 10 year old Senate Report details, but that you will NEVER hear in any mainstream source. It is in the Reigle Report is also known as the "Staff Report on US Chemical and Biological Warfare-Related Dual-Use Exports to Iraq and The Possible Impact on the Health Consequences of the War. It can be found here


You can find the most damming sections of that report at the bottom of this page. In it you can see we shipped Saddam many chemical and biological agents including Anthrax. All was being transferred when Saddam was probably at his most violent and repressive stage in his career. Do you wonder why the world hates America? We ship Weapons of Mass Destruction to Saddam Hussein and then accuse him of being an 'evil dictator' because he has Weapons of Mass Destruction! Yet no Media organization in the Nation taken this government to tasks for this. What a Sham!


It must be remembered that after the first Gulf War Iraq's WMD's were destroyed. Saddam has been broke ever since. America has been stealing the oil for food money  since we arrived in Iraq and probably long before that. In addition Iraq's commerce has been subjected to UN sanctions. There was no way Saddam could afford to have a program as massive as Bush claimed over and over again to the nation in speech after speech. Our President was maliciously instilling fear into Americans, a fear he knew to be false. If Americans had one-tenth the amount of courage that the worst cowards of history possessed, that man would be out of office by sunset. The people are so instilled with fear and terror, whipped up by the neo-cons, that they cannot bring themselves to demand it, cowering in front their TV's, drunk and doped up.

Think tanks like the American Enterprise Institute, who is little more that a corporate think tank whose conclusions are designed to benefit, not ordinary small and mid-sized businesses but the largest mega-conglomerates and defense contractors America has. These think tanks also include the RAND corporation, who has made its living on Government contracts. These two think tanks and those who hail from them as well as others like them, make up an important part of the Neo-conservative's who now run the nation.

To be sure America's intelligence agencies are in desperate need of a major overhaul. However, this particular administration is ill equipped and would only make a bad situation worse. The enemies of this nation could only laugh with glee and sing for joy if Bush's cronies are the ones in charge of 'reforming' our intelligence capabilities. Any real analyst would be fired and political hacks would be brought in to manufacture whatever intelligence the prevailing political winds desired, weather it bore any relationship to reality or not. This is the real legacy of the Bush administration. However, it must be made abundantly clear the the entire Intelligence process is broken. It cannot be repaired until real change occurs at the top, i.e., a President that is neither Democrat nor Republican and has no financial ties to defense contractors and our incredibly corrupt political establishment. This is an impossibility barring a violent revolution in America, something I neither desire nor advocate. Our establishment would never allow such man to rise to such power. They would pull out all the stops to get rid of someone like that. This is why our intelligence capabilities will not be reformed in away that will provide the nation with timely, relevant and accurate assessments. The Bush administration will ensure that only analysts who do exactly as they are told and gather or manufacture information that suits his political whims get jobs in this new intelligence community. They will further centralize dissemination, ensuring dissenting views are neither vetted nor acted upon and will certainly rewrite the administrative laws to imprison whistleblowers. In such an environment, in the event we find oil at the south pole, we will one day be  invading Antarctica because the of the WMD threat the penguins may one day posses.


Prior Warning


Here is a couple of key findings in and earlier Senate Report identifying problems in the US intelligence Community that should not have gone unnoticed and forgotten as it has. It has little to do with WMD's but goes to the heart of  public pronouncements  that we could not have known Bin laden was going to hijack pales and crash them into buildings.

Of particular interest to the Joint Inquiry was whether and to what extent the President

received threat-specific warnings during this period. The Joint Inquiry was advised by a

representative of the Intelligence Community that, in August 2001, a closely held intelligence

report for senior government officials included information that Bin Ladin had wanted to

conduct attacks in the United States since 1997. The information included discussion of the

arrest of Ahmed Ressam in December 1999 at the U.S.-Canadian border and the 1998 bombings

of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. It mentioned that members of al-Qa’ida, including

some U.S. citizens, had resided in or traveled to the United States for years and that the group

apparently maintained a support structure here. The report cited uncorroborated information

obtained and disseminated in 1998 that Bin Ladin wanted to hijack airplanes to gain the release

of U.S.-held extremists; FBI judgments about patterns of activity consistent with preparations for

hijackings or other types of attacks; as well as information acquired in May 2001 that indicated a

group of Bin Ladin supporters was planning attacks in the United States with explosives].*

4. Finding: From at least 1994, and continuing into the summer of 2001, the

Intelligence Community received information indicating that terrorists were

contemplating, among other means of attack, the use of aircraft as weapons. This

information did not stimulate any specific Intelligence Community assessment of, or

collective U.S. Government reaction to, this form of threat.

Discussion: [While the credibility of the sources was sometimes questionable and

the information often sketchy, the Inquiry confirmed that the Intelligence Community did

receive intelligence reporting concerning the potential use of aircraft as weapons. For

example, the Community received information in 1998 about a Bin Ladin operation that

would involve flying an explosive- laden aircraft into a U.S. airport and, in summer 2001,

about a plot to bomb a U.S. embassy from an airplane or crash an airplane into it. The

FBI and CIA were also aware that convicted terrorist Abdul Hakim Murad and several

others had discussed the possibility of crashing an airplane into CIA Headquarters as part

of “the Bojinka Plot” in the Philippines, discussed later in this report. Some, but

apparently not all, of these reports were disseminated within the Intelligence Community

and to other agencies].

* National Security Advisor Condoleeza Rice stated in a May 16, 2002 press briefing that, on August 6, 2001, the

President’s Daily Brief (PDB) included information about Bin Ladin’s methods of operation from a historical

perspective dating back to 1997. One of the methods was that Bin Ladin might choose to highjack an airliner in order

to hold passengers hostage to gain release of one of their operatives. She stated, however, that the report did not

contain specific warning information, but only a generalized warning, and did not contain information that al-Qa’ida

was discussing a particular planned attack against a specific target at any specific time, place, or by any specific


NSA is not left unscathed either. Another finding shows how specific some of the intelligence received was.

Discussion: [In early 1999, the National Security Agency (NSA) analyzed

communications involving a suspected terrorist facility in the Middle East that had

previously been linked to al-Qa’ida activities directed against U.S. interests. Information

obtained [ ] included, among other things, the full name of future hijacker Nawaf al-

Hazmi. Beyond the fact that the communications involved a suspected terrorist facility in

the Middle East, the communications did not, in NSA’s view at the time, feature any

other terrorist-related information. The information was not published because the

individuals mentioned in the communications were unknown to NSA, and, according to

NSA, the information did not meet NSA’s reporting thresholds. NSA has explained that

these thresholds are flexible, sometimes changing daily, and consist of several factors,

including: the priority of the intelligence requirement; the apparent intelligence value of

the information; the level of customer interest in the topic; the current situation; and the

volume of intercept to be analyzed and reported].

[During the summer of 1999, NSA analyzed additional communications involving

a suspected terrorist facility in the Middle East that included the name of Khaled. At

about the same time, the name Khallad also came to NSA’s attention. This information

did not meet NSA’s reporting thresholds and thus was not disseminated].

The blame on this particular finding however does not rest so much with Bush but with the broken nature of the NSA and its inability to analyze and disseminate relevant material in a timely manner. This is a longstanding problem. NSA needs to have its entire upper-level management retired and put out to pasture. It desperately needs new blood and new ideas. In its present form it is a cold war albatross that sucks up too much money and provides only a marginal intelligence product. It needs to be more narrowly focused in its targets and more integrated with its consumers.


To be sure what this report does is shows some of the turf battles in the Government and how one agency can get key senators to back its claims against their enemies. Tenet lost this battle and now his agency will suffer at the hands of its political enemies.

Media Coverage

In closing an important aspect of the media reporting on this whole issue must be covered. The political hacks in the media are spinning this report to say things (most are not even true) that it wants out in the public domain. The usually liberal media is doing a fantastic cover-up job for Bush. Why? Before I answer that question I must qualify what I am saying. I love the Jewish people and I believe that Israel has a right to exist and defend itself without the excessive foreign interference we see today. No nation on earth would allow the kind of daily terror attacks to occur without taking stern measures to protect its citizens and borders. Israel and the Jews are everyone's whipping boy and it is easy to pick on 'those Jews' as it has been done since time immemorial. I will not get on that bandwagon... ever.

Nevertheless, the Jewish Lobby in America is a very, very powerful force. In fact, many have observed that Israel really runs our government's foreign policies. While much of this kind of talk is done by racists and anti-Semites, it is difficult to understate the influence Israel and powerful Jews in America exert on her political processes. Jewish ownership of her media organizations has been documented in myriad publications including those who have no bone to pick with Israel or the Jewish people.


Why do I bring this up? This war on terror is very important to Israel and in the view of some, will ultimately determine her survival. Israel knows it is walking a fine line on the world stage. It also knows that Islamic governments are sooner or later going to be powerful enough to fight her and win. Thus Israel and much of the Jewish lobby is going to support Bush for this very reason. He is fighting their enemies. It is also why I think that even if John Kerry is elected, this war will continue, though not with the same tone and tactics the Bush administration has used. This in a nutshell is why I think so much about the facts surrounding 911, our war and our waning political clout on the world stage are not dealt with honestly on MSNBC, CNN, FOX, ABC, NBC, CBS, LA Times, New York Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, and the rest of the major broadcast and print media. There is a bias and it believes it is in the National Interest to protect Israel at just about all costs and that goal is more important than the US Constitution, our freedom, the lives of American soldiers, and the truth.

That's why it is important to get away from American news reporting or at least balance your news reading with foreign news reporting. There you will see just how far America has fallen in the eyes of the world and the real danger Bush's polices have been for America.



Vote Republican and America will die young.


Mark Watson



The Entire Senate Report Can be Found Here - warming! this file is humungous!







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Excerpt From the Reigle Report


U.S. Exports of Biological Materials to Iraq

The Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs has oversight responsibility for the Export Administration Act. Pursuant to the Act, Committee staff contacted the U.S. Department of Commerce and requested information on the export of biological materials during the years prior to the Gulf War. After receiving this information, we contacted a principal supplier of these materials to determine what, if any, materials were exported to Iraq which might have contributed to an offensive or defensive biological warfare program. Records available from the supplier for the period from 1985 until the present show that during this time, pathogenic (meaning "disease producing"), toxigenic (meaning "poisonous"), and other biological research materials were exported to Iraq pursuant to application and licensing by the U.S. Department of Commerce. Records prior to 1985 were not available, according to the supplier. These exported biological materials were not attenuated or weakened and were capable of reproduction. According to the Department of Defense's own Report to Congress on the Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, released in April 1992: "By the time of the invasion of Kuwait, Iraq had developed biological weapons. It's advanced and aggressive biological warfare program was the most advanced in the Arab world... The program probably began late in the 1970's and concentrated on the development of two agents, botulinum toxin and anthrax bacteria... Large scale production of these agents began in 1989 at four facilities in Baghdad. Delivery means for biological agents ranged from simple aerial bombs and artillery rockets to surface-to-surface missiles."

Included in the approved sales are the following biological materials (which have been considered by various nations for use in war), with their associated disease symptoms:

Bacillus Anthracis: anthrax is a disease producing bacteria identified by the Department of Defense in The Conduct of the Persian Gulf War: Final Report to Congress, as being a major component in the Iraqi biological warfare program.

Anthrax is an often fatal infectious disease due to ingestion of spores. It begins abruptly with high fever, difficulty in breathing, and chest pain. The disease eventually results in septicemia (blood poisoning), and the mortality is high. Once septicemia is advanced, antibiotic therapy may prove useless, probably because the exotoxins remain, despite the death of the bacteria.

Clostridium Botulinum: A bacterial source of botulinum toxin, which causes vomiting, constipation, thirst, general weakness, headache, fever, dizziness, double vision, dilation of the pupils and paralysis of the muscles involving swallowing. It is often fatal.

Histoplasma Capsulatum: causes a disease superfically resembling tuberculosis that may cause pneumonia, enlargement of the liver and spleen, anemia, an influenza like illness and an acute inflammatory skin disease marked by tender red nodules, usually on the shins. Reactivated infection usually involves the lungs, the brain, spinal membranes, heart, peritoneum, and the adrenals.

Brucella Melitensis: a bacteria which can cause chronic fatigue, loss of appetite, profuse sweating when at rest, pain in joints and muscles, insomnia, nausea, and damage to major organs.

Clostridium Perfringens: a highly toxic bacteria which causes gas gangrene. The bacteria produce toxins that move along muscle bundles in the body killing cells and producing necrotic tissue that is then favorable for further growth of the bacteria itself. Eventually, these toxins and bacteria enter the bloodstream and cause a systemic illness.

In addition, several shipments of Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) and genetic materials, as well as human and bacterial DNA, were shipped directly to the Iraq Atomic Energy Commission.

The following is a detailed listing of biological materials, provided by the American Type Culture Collection, which were exported to agencies of the government of Iraq pursuant to the issuance of an export licensed by the U.S. Commerce Department:

Date      : February 8, 1985
Sent To   : Iraq Atomic Energy Agency
Materials Shipped:

          Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup

Date      : February 22, 1985
Sent To   : Ministry of Higher Education
Materials Shipped:

          Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum (ATCC 32136)
          Class III pathogen

Date      : July 11, 1985
Sent To   : Middle and Near East Regional A
Material Shipped:

          Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum (ATCC 32136)
          Class III pathogen

Date      : May 2, 1986
Sent To   : Ministry of Higher Education
Materials Shipped:

     1.   Bacillus Anthracis Cohn (ATCC 10)
           Batch # 08-20-82 (2 each)
           Class III pathogen

     2.   Bacillus Subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn (ATCC 82)
           Batch # 06-20-84 (2 each)

     3.   Clostridium botulinum Type A (ATCC 3502)
           Batch # 07-07-81 (3 each)
           Class III pathogen

     4.   Clostridium perfringens (Weillon and Zuber) Hauduroy, et al (ATCC 3624)
           Batch # 10-85SV (2 each)

     5.   Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051)
           Batch # 12-06-84 (2 each)

     6.   Francisella tularensis var. tularensis Olsufiev (ATCC 6223)
           Batch # 05-14-79 (2 each)
           Avirulent, suitable for preparations of diagnotic antigens

     7.   Clostridium tetani (ATCC 9441)
           Batch # 03-84 (3 each)
           Highly toxigenic

     8.   Clostridium botulinum Type E (ATCC 9564)
           Batch # 03-02-79 (2 each)
           Class III pathogen

     9.   Clostridium tetani (ATCC 10779)
           Batch # 04-24-84S (3 each)

     10.  Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 12916)
            Batch #08-14-80 (2 each)
            Agglutinating type 2

     11.  Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 13124)
            Batch #07-84SV (3 each)
            Type A, alpha-toxigenic, produces lecithinase C.J. Appl.

     12.  Bacillus Anthracis (ATCC 14185)
            Batch #01-14-80 (3 each)
            G.G. Wright (Fort Detrick)
            V770-NP1-R. Bovine Anthrax
            Class III pathogen

     13.  Bacillus Anthracis (ATCC 14578)
           Batch #01-06-78 (2 each)
           Class III pathogen

     14.  Bacillus megaterium (ATCC 14581)
           Batch #04-18-85 (2 each)

     15.  Bacillus megaterium (ATCC 14945)
           Batch #06-21-81 (2 each)

     16.  Clostridium botulinum Type E (ATCC 17855)
           Batch # 06-21-71
           Class III pathogen

     17.  Bacillus megaterium (ATCC 19213)
            Batch #3-84 (2 each)
     18.  Clostridium botulinum Type A (ATCC 19397)
           Batch # 08-18-81 (2 each)
           Class III pathogen

     19.  Brucella abortus Biotype 3 (ATCC 23450)
           Batch # 08-02-84 (3 each)
           Class III pathogen

     20.  Brucella abortus Biotype 9 (ATCC 23455)
           Batch # 02-05-68 (3 each)
           Class III pathogen

     21.  Brucella melitensis Biotype 1 (ATCC 23456)
           Batch # 03-08-78 (2 each)
           Class III pathogen

     22.  Brucella melitensis Biotype 3 (ATCC 23458)
           Batch # 01-29-68 (2 each)
           Class III pathogen

     23.  Clostribium botulinum Type A (ATCC 25763)
           Batch # 8-83 (2 each)
           Class III pathogen

     24.  Clostridium botulinum Type F (ATCC 35415)
           Batch # 02-02-84 (2 each)
           Class III pathogen

Date      : August 31, 1987
Sent To   : State Company for Drug Industries
Materials Shipped:

     1.   Saccharomyces cerevesiae (ATCC 2601)
          Batch # 08-28-08 (1 each)

     2.   Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis Serotype typhi (ATCC 6539)
          Batch # 06-86S (1 each)

     3.   Bacillus subtillus (ATCC 6633)
          Batch # 10-85 (2 each)

     4.   Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (ATCC 10031)
          Batch # 08-13-80 (1 each)

     5.   Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536)
          Batch # 04-09-80 (1 each)

     6.   Bacillus cereus (11778)
          Batch #05-85SV (2 each)

     7.   Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228)
          Batch # 11-86s (1 each)

     8.   Bacillus pumilus (ATCC 14884)
          Batch # 09-08-80 (2 each)

Date      : July 11, 1988
Sent To   : Iraq Atomic Energy Commission
Materials Shipped

     1.   Escherichia coli (ATCC 11303)
          Batch # 04-875
          Phase host

     2.   Cauliflower Mosaic Caulimovirus (ATCC 45031)
          Batch # 06-14-85
          Plant Virus

     3.   Plasmid in Agrobacterium Tumefaciens (ATCC 37349)
          (Ti plasmid for co-cultivation with plant integration vectors in E. Coli)
          Batch # 05-28-85

Date      : April 26, 1988
Sent To:  : Iraq Atomic Energy Commission
Materials Shipped:

     1.   Hulambda4x-8, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase
          (HPRT) Chromosome(s): X q26.1 (ATCC 57236) Phage vector
          Suggest host: E coli

     2.   Hulambda14-8, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase
          (HPRT) Chromosome(s): X q26.1 (ATCC 57240) Phage vector
          Suggested host: E coli

     3.   Hulambda15, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase
          (HPRT) Chromosome(s): X q26.1 (ATCC 57242) Phage vector
          Suggested host: E. coli

Date      : August 31, 1987
Sent To   : Iraq Atomic Energy Commission
Materials Shipped:

     1.   Escherichia coli (ATCC 23846)
          Batch # 07-29-83 (1 each)

     2.   Escherichia coli (ATCC 33694)
          Batch # 05-87 (1 each)

Date      : September 29, 1988
Sent To   : Ministry of Trade
Materials Shipped:

     1.   Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 240)
          Batch # 05-14-63 (3 each)
          Class III pathogen

     2.   Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 938)
          Batch # 1963 (3 each)
          Class III pathogen

     3.   Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 3629)
          Batch # 10-23-85 (3 each)

     4.   Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 8009)
          Batch # 03-30-84 (3 each)

     5.   Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 8705)
          Batch # 06-27-62 (3 each)
          Class III pathogen

     6.   Brucella abortus (ATCC 9014)
          Batch # 05-11-66 (3 each)
          Class III pathogen

     7.   Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 10388)
          Batch # 06-01-73 (3 each)

     8.   Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 11966)
          Batch #05-05-70 (3 each)
          Class III pathogen

     9.   Clostridium botulinum Type A
          Batch # 07-86 (3 each)
          Class III pathogen

     10.  Bacillus cereus (ATCC 33018)
          Batch # 04-83 (3 each)

     11.  Bacillus ceres (ATCC 33019)
          Batch # 03-88 (3 each)

Date      : January 31, 1989
Sent To   : Iraq Atomic Energy Commission
Materials Shipped:

     1.   PHPT31, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)
          Chromosome(s): X q26.1 (ATCC 57057)

     2.   Plambda500, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase
          pseudogene (HPRT) Chromosome(s): 5 p14-p13 (ATCC 57212)

Date      : January 17, 1989
Sent To   : Iraq Atomic Energy Commission
Materials Shipped:

     1.   Hulambda4x-8, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase
          (HPRT) Chromosomes(s): X q26.1 (ATCC 57237) Phage vector;
          Suggested host:  E. coli

     2.   Hulambda14, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase
          (HPRT) Chromosome(s): X q26.1 (ATCC 57540), Cloned from human lymphoblast, Phase vector
          Suggested host:  E. coli

     3.   Hulambda15, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase
          (HPRT) Chromosome(s): X q26.1 (ATCC 57241) Phage vector;
          Suggested host:  E. coli

Additionally, the Centers for Disease Control has compiled a listing of biological materials shipped to Iraq prior to the Gulf War. The listing covers the period from October 1, 1984 (when the CDC began keeping records) through October 13, 1993. The following materials with biological warfare significance were shipped to Iraq during this period.


Date      : November 28, 1989
Sent To   : University of Basrah, College of
Science, Department of Biology
Materials Shipped:

     1.   Enterococcus faecalis

     2.   Enterococcus faecium

     3.   Enterococcus avium

     4.   Enterococcus raffinosus

     5.   Enteroccus gallinarium

     6.   Enterococcus durans

     7.   Enteroccus hirae

     8.   Streptococcus bovis

Date      : April 21, 1986
Sent To   : Officers City Al-Muthanna,
Quartret 710, Street 13, Close 69, House 28/I,
          Baghdad, Iraq
Materials Shipped:

     1.   1 vial botulinum toxoid

Date      : March 10, 1986
Sent To   : Officers City Al-Muthanna,
Quartret 710, Street 13, Close 69 House 28/I,
          Baghdad, Iraq
Materials Shipped:

     1.   1 vial botulinum toxoid #A2

Date      : June 25, 1985
Sent To   : University of Baghdad, College of
Medicine, Department of Microbiology
Materials Shipped:

     1.   3 years cultures
          Candida sp.

Date      : May 21, 1985
Sent To   : Basrah, Iraq
Materials Shipped:

     1.   Lyophilized arbovirus seed

     2.   West Nile Fever Virus

Date      : April 26, 1985
Sent To   : Minister of Health, Ministry of
Health, Baghdad, Iraq
Materials Shipped:

     1.   8 vials antigen and antisera (r. rickettsii and r. typhi) to diagnose rickettsial infections (non-infectious)